So much to learn from his leadsership and vision which he demonstrated on many occasions. Sir Ernest H. Shackleton On 4 January, 1922, the ‘Quest’ reached South Georgia and cast anchor off the Grytviken whaling station. He thought seriously of going to the Beaufort Sea area of the Arctic, a largely unexplored region, and raised some interest in this idea from the Canadian government. He then sought to cash in on his celebrity by making a fortune in the business world. Leaving McNish, Vincent and McCarthy at the landing point on South Georgia, Shackleton travelled 32 miles (51 km)[95] with Worsley and Crean over extremely dangerous mountainous terrain for 36 hours to reach the whaling station at Stromness on 20 May. Launching the James Caird from the shore of Elephant Island, April 24, 1916. [64] All the members of the Nimrod Expedition shore party received silver Polar Medals on 23 November, with Shackleton receiving a clasp to his earlier medal. Dr. Juliana Adelman is an Assistant Professor of History in the School of History and Geography. [89] On 21 November 1915, the wreck finally slipped beneath the surface. Ernest Shackleton Ernest Shackleton Short Biography. After a few days, with the position at 69° 5' S, 51° 30' W, Shackleton gave the order to abandon ship, saying, "She's going down! For other uses, see, Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917, Modern calculations, based on Shackleton's photograph and Wilson's drawing, place the furthest point reached at 82° 11'. [8] He was schooled by a governess until the age of eleven, when he began at Fir Lodge Preparatory School in West Hill, Dulwich, in southeast London. The only way his expedition would be successful was through the hard work of his entire crew. In 2002, Shackleton was voted eleventh in a BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. [107] The Yelcho took the crew first to Punta Arenas and after some days to Valparaiso in Chile where crowds warmly welcomed them back to civilisation. In charge of holds, stores and provisions [...] He also arranges the entertainments. Ward-room caterer. Having gone to sea as a teenager, Shackleton joined Captain Scott’s Discovery expedition 1901 – 1904 and went on to lead three of his own expeditions to the Antarctic. Shackleton did it with no equipment or even decent shoes. The Heart of the Antarctic, by Sir Ernest Shackleton.. Aurora Australis, by Sir Ernest Shackleton.. Shackleton's Lieutenant, by A.L.A. [67] The reality was that the expedition had left Shackleton deeply in debt, unable to meet the financial guarantees he had given to backers. Broadcast in the United States on the A&E Network, it won two Emmy Awards.[149]. [7], From early childhood, Shackleton was a voracious reader, a pursuit which sparked a passion for adventure. Mrs Chippy was shot when the Endurance sank, due to the belief that he would not have survived the ordeal that followed. He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. His first three attempts were foiled by sea ice, which blocked the approaches to the island. 77510). [140], Within a few years, he was thoroughly overtaken in public esteem by Shackleton, whose popularity surged while that of his erstwhile rival declined. Also, members of his team climbed Mount Erebus, the most active Antarctic volcano. By early 1912, the world was aware that the pole had been conquered, by the Norwegian Roald Amundsen. [139], In 1959, Alfred Lansing's Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage was published. He appealed to the Chilean government, which offered the use of the Yelcho, a small seagoing tug from its navy. [98] Shackleton had clashed with McNish during the time when the party was stranded on the ice, but, while he did not forgive the carpenter's earlier insubordination, Shackleton recognised his value for this particular job. On 27 November 2011, the ashes of Frank Wild were interred on the right-hand side of Shackleton's gravesite in Grytviken. He also socialized with his crew members every evening after dinner, leading sing-alongs, jokes, and games. Our podcast series is themed on Shackleton’s four key principles and we look at his expertise and methods and at how these relate to the issues we are facing as we navigate the current situation. "Chiefly alcohol, Boss," replied Macklin. [h][99][100] Not only did Shackleton recognize their value for the job but also because he knew the potential risk they were to morale. Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874, in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland. [4] Ernest was the second of their ten children and the first of two sons; the second, Frank, achieved notoriety as a suspect, later exonerated, in the 1907 theft of the Irish Crown Jewels. He still harboured thoughts of returning south, even though in September 1910, having recently moved with his family to Sheringham in Norfolk, he wrote to Emily: "I am never again going South and I have thought it all out and my place is at home now". In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton decided to study medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, and moved his family into the city. Ernest Shackleton’s Endurance expedition was the remarkable final chapter in the Heroic Age of Exploration. The plan was to sail his ship, the Endurance, to Argentina, then on to Antarctica, then walk across the continent where another crew would pick them up. Shackleton was blessed with a natural grasp of people management. He studied at Dulwich College at the age of 13, and although he disliked school, he placed 5th in a class of 31 students during his final term. Ernest Henry Shackleton was a dreamer. There remained the men of the Ross Sea Party, who were stranded at Cape Evans in McMurdo Sound, after Aurora had been blown from its anchorage and driven out to sea, unable to return. The three on the other side of the island were soon picked up, but it took months to rescue the men on South Georgia. [145] In Boston, a "Shackleton School" was set up on "Outward Bound" principles, with the motto "The Journey is Everything". [13] On 17 February 1901, his appointment as third officer to the expedition's ship Discovery was confirmed; on 4 June he was commissioned into the Royal Navy, with the rank of sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve. His fondest dream was to make a name for himself. Upon his death, he was lauded in the press but was thereafter largely forgotten, while the heroic reputation of his rival Scott was sustained for many decades. Ernest Shackleton had already made a name for himself as an intrepid explorer, having reached a record southern latitude on his Antarctic expedition of … “Shackleton is recognised as a role model for his leadership in times of crisis, most notably the Endurance expedition where, having lost the expedition ship, he led his crew through one of the greatest ever survival epics. In 1921, he returned to the Antarctic with the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition, but died of a heart attack while his ship was moored in South Georgia. On his third Antarctic expedition, Sir Ernest Shackleton led the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition for Britain, which departed England in 1914. 1. The party was in high spirits, despite the difficult conditions; Shackleton's ability to communicate with each man kept the party happy and focused.[51]. The printed word saw much more attention given to Scott—a forty-page booklet on Shackleton, published in 1943 by OUP as part of a "Great Exploits" series, is described by cultural historian Stephanie Barczewski as "a lone example of a popular literary treatment of Shackleton in a sea of similar treatments of Scott". in response to the current pandemic. [161] Blended with a parallel story of a struggling composer, the play retells the adventure of Endurance in detail, incorporating photos and videos of the journey. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Shackleton, by Roland Huntford.. Shackleton led four expeditions to the Antarctic during his life. (equivalent to £30,590 in 2019[132]) which he bequeathed to his wife. F Four years later, the family moved again, from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London. [31], After a period of convalescence in New Zealand, Shackleton returned to England via San Francisco and New York. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO OBE FRGS FRSGS (/ˈʃækəltən/; 15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic. The third option was chosen. It was led by Robert Falcon Scott, a Royal Navy torpedo lieutenant lately promoted commander,[16] and had objectives that included scientific and geographical discovery. Unqualified as a diplomat, he was unsuccessful in persuading Argentina and Chile to enter the war on the Allied side. [158], In 2016 a statue of Shackleton by Mark Richards was erected in Athy, sponsored by Kildare County Council. (, Beardmore's help took the form of guaranteeing a loan at Clydesdale Bank, for £7,000 (2008 equivalent approx. Born 15 February 1874, in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland, Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was a popular British Antarctic explorer. [42] Shackleton by this time was making no secret of his ambition to return to Antarctica at the head of his own expedition. Led by explorer and environmental scientist Tim Jarvis, the team was assembled at the request of Alexandra Shackleton, Sir Ernest's granddaughter, who felt the trip would honour her grandfather's legacy. Born close to the village of Kilkea, between Castledermot and Athy, in the south of County Kildare in 1874, Ernest Shackleton is renowned for his courage, his commitment to the welfare of his comrades and his immense contribution to exploration and geographical discovery. Shackleton himself was safe, but he did not forget his stranded men. As you can see, he did not beat around the bush when describing the risk laden conditions these men would live in. With Amundsen reaching the pole in December of 1911 and Scott in 1912, Shackleton asked himself what was the last great geographic prize. In the early hours of the next morning, Shackleton summoned the expedition's physician, Alexander Macklin,[126] to his cabin, complaining of back pains and other discomfort. In the period immediately after his return, Shackleton engaged in a strenuous schedule of public appearances, lectures and social engagements. They later learned that the same hurricane had sunk a 500-ton steamer bound for South Georgia from Buenos Aires. [96] Shackleton's concern for his men was such that he gave his mittens to photographer Frank Hurley, who had lost his during the boat journey. The crew escaped by camping on the sea ice until it disintegrated, then by launching the lifeboats to reach Elephant Island and ultimately South Georgia Island, a stormy ocean voyage of 720 nautical miles (1,330 km; 830 mi) and Shackleton's most famous exploit. Morale matters: Motivate the group and the individual. Ernest Shackleton was part of a big family. While Shackleton led the expedition, Captain F. Worsley commanded the Endurance and Lieutenant J. Stenhouse the Aurora. [86], On 24 February, realising that she would be trapped until the following spring, Shackleton ordered the abandonment of ship's routine and her conversion to a winter station. Sir Ernest Shackleton visited old friends at the whaling station and organised preparations for the expedition. [35] As the first significant person to return from the Antarctic, he found that he was in demand; in particular, the Admiralty wished to consult him about its further proposals for the rescue of Discovery. [143] Other management writers soon followed this lead, using Shackleton as an exemplar for bringing order from chaos. Reality TV Crew: Tim Jarvis in the Footsteps of Shackleton", "Shackleton adventurers complete epic re-enactment voyage", "Adventurer Tim Jarvis survives to tell of his recreation of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic journey", "Chasing Shackleton: Chasing Shackleton re-aired August 12, 2014", "Statue of Polar explorer Ernest Shackleton unveiled in Athy", "The unveiling of Shackleton statue at Athy, Co. Kildare – Endurance Exhibition", "Ernest Shackleton Loves Me Off Broadway", "Review: A Zany Version of the Romance 'Ernest Shackleton Loves Me' in New Brunswick", https://nzheraldry.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/sir-ernest-shackleton/, "Explorers' century-old whisky found in Antarctic", "Forgotten hero Frank Wild of Antarctic exploration finally laid to rest, beside his 'boss' Sir Ernest Shackleton", "Shackleton's biscuit fetches tasty price", "Historical figures: Ernest Shackleton (1874–1922)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernest_Shackleton&oldid=994233706, British Army personnel of the Russian Civil War, Collections of the Scott Polar Research Institute, Fellows of the Royal Geographical Society, Fellows of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, Liberal Unionist Party parliamentary candidates, Officers of the Order of the British Empire, Recipients of the Cullum Geographical Medal, Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Biodiversity Heritage Library links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Semantic Scholar author identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO, 1909; MVO 4th Class: 1907), Officer of the Order of the British Empire, Military Division (OBE, 1918), Polar Medal (1904; with clasp for Nimrod Expedition: 1909), Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of Antwerp (1909), This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 18:49. Abraham Shackleton, an English Quaker, moved to Ireland in 1726 and started a school at Ballitore, County Kildare. He was one of the principal figures of the "Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration". [35], In search of more permanent employment, Shackleton applied for a regular commission in the Royal Navy, via the back-door route of the Supplementary List,[37] but despite the sponsorship of Markham and William Huggins, the president of the Royal Society, he was not successful. [77], His interviewing and selection methods sometimes seemed eccentric; believing that character and temperament were as important as technical ability,[78] he asked unconventional questions. What Did Shackleton Do? [81] He ultimately selected a crew of 56, twenty-eight on each ship. After a medical examination (which proved inconclusive),[32] Scott decided to send Shackleton home on the relief ship Morning, which had arrived in McMurdo Sound in January 1903. [48] In accordance with Shackleton's promise to Scott, the ship headed for the eastern sector of the Great Ice Barrier, arriving there on 21 January 1908. in Morrell and Capparell 146). His father was a doctor and wanted Ernest to follow in his footsteps. The Endurance 1914 – 1916 expedition has become one of the greatest epics of human survival. The Anglo-Irish family of Shackleton was not the exception. It examines the parallels between the conditions experienced by renowned explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton and his crew on his Antarctic expeditions and the characteristics they needed, and our own experiences now under the COVID19 restrictions. Born in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland, Shackleton and his Anglo-Irish family[1] moved to Sydenham in suburban south London when he was ten. Hurley himself was a hero and was very important in a number of other incidents beyond his … [154][155], The expedition very carefully matched legacy conditions, using a replica of the James Caird (named for the project's patron: the Alexandra Shackleton), period clothing (by Burberry), replica rations (both in calorific content and rough constitution), period navigational aids, and a Thomas Mercer chronometer just as Shackleton had used. This book, as well as being a tribute to the explorer, was a practical effort to assist his family; Shackleton died some £40,000 in debt (equivalent to £2,200,324 in 2019[132])[135] A further initiative was the establishment of a Shackleton Memorial Fund, which was used to assist the education of his children and the support of his mother. At age 13, Shackleton enrolled at Dulwich College. [38] He was then offered, and accepted, the secretaryship of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS), a post which he took up on 11 January 1904. He is best known for his 1914-1916 attempt to traverse the Antarctic which, although unsuccessful, became famous as a story of remarkable perseverance and survival. Appointment to a military expedition to Murmansk obliged him to return home again, before departing for northern Russia. Visiting history on South Georgia Island, Ernest Shackleton's final resting place This tiny south Atlantic island is the last resting place of one the world's greatest polar explorers, Ernest Shackleton. How much do you know about Shackleton and his epic journeys? Who Was Ernest Shackleton? - Ernest Shackleton So was born what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctica expedition of 1914 - 1917. Who He Was. Shackleton: Everyone did everything that he was capable of doing, and that's the crux. Author Michael Smith looks at the qualities that made The Boss so charismatic. [121] The goals of the venture were imprecise, but a circumnavigation of the Antarctic continent and investigation of some "lost" sub-Antarctic islands, such as Tuanaki, were mentioned as objectives.[123]. A new podcast by Dr. Juliana Adelman from the School of History and Geography and Kevin Kenny from the Shackleton Museum in Athy asks, Shackleton wrote about what is needed to survive the adversities which life throws up. After landing, Shackleton took part in an experimental balloon flight on 4 February. Ernest Shackleton ©Shackleton was an Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer, best known for leading the 'Endurance' expedition of 1914-16. [e][72], Any future resumption by Shackleton of the quest for the South Pole depended on the results of Scott's Terra Nova Expedition, which left from Cardiff in July 1910. [123] On 16 September 1921, Shackleton recorded a farewell address on a sound-on-film system created by Harry Grindell Matthews, who claimed it was the first "talking picture" ever made. In this regard Shackleton’s procrastination cost the party dearly. [145] Shackleton has also been cited as a model leader by the US Navy, and in a textbook on Congressional leadership, Peter L Steinke calls Shackleton the archetype of the "nonanxious leader" whose "calm, reflective demeanor becomes the antibiotic warning of the toxicity of reactive behaviour". [91] After failed attempts to march across the ice to this island, Shackleton decided to set up another more permanent camp (Patience Camp) on another floe, and trust to the drift of the ice to take them towards a safe landing. The attitudes of his men were a point of emphasis in leading his men back to safety. Ernest Henry Shackleton was a dreamer. In his 1956 address to the British Science Association, Sir Raymond Priestley, one of his contemporaries, said "Scott for scientific method, Amundsen for speed and efficiency but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for Shackleton", paraphrasing what Apsley Cherry-Garrard had written in a preface to his 1922 memoir The Worst Journey in the World. ", Study of diaries kept by Eric Marshall, medical officer to the 1907–09 expedition, suggests that Shackleton suffered from an atrial septal defect ("hole in the heart"), a congenital heart defect, which may have been a cause of his health problems.[131]. On 9 April, their ice floe broke into two, and Shackleton ordered the crew into the lifeboats and to head for the nearest land. Shackleton wrote about what is needed to survive the adversities which life throws up. Please tell us about Shackleton’s Endurance expedition. When Sir Ernest Shackleton set out on the Endurance to be the first man to cross the Antarctic, he knew he could not do it alone. E xplorer Explorer Sir Raymond Priestley said: "For scientific discovery give me [Robert Falcon] Scott; for speed and efficiency of travel give me [Roald] Amundsen; but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for [Ernest] Shackleton.". [162], "Shackleton" redirects here. [50] After considerable weather delays, Shackleton's base was eventually established at Cape Royds, about 24 miles (39 km) north of Hut Point. As the ship moved southward navigating in ice, first year ice was encountered, which slowed progress. He travelled widely, but was keen to explore the poles. The ship, after a drift of many months, had returned to New Zealand. [142], In 2001 Margaret Morrell and Stephanie Capparell presented Shackleton as a model for corporate leadership in their book Shackleton's Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer. Shackleton always kept the members of the crew informed, and never left any member out (80). Ernest Shackleton, however, would not have been surprised: he edited his 1914-17 journal into the book, South!, which was published three years after he had returned from Antarctica. Shackleton, also called “The Boss”, was among the greatest explorers to ever walk on this earth. One does not believe that we have lost all sense of admiration for courage [and] endurance". [110][111] In October 1917, he was sent to Buenos Aires to boost British propaganda in South America. He also assisted in the equipping of the Argentine Uruguay, which was being fitted out for the relief of the stranded Swedish Antarctic Expedition under Otto Nordenskjold. [60], Besides the official honours, Shackleton's Antarctic feats were greeted in Britain with great enthusiasm. On the Endurance, the second in command was the experienced explorer Frank Wild. 2. [113] On the way he was taken ill in Tromsø, possibly with a heart attack. [36] With Sir Clements Markham's blessing, he accepted a temporary post assisting the outfitting of the Terra Nova for the second Discovery relief operation, but turned down the offer to sail with her as chief officer. The fate of Scott's expedition was not then known. When disaster struck and the Endurance was crushed by ice, he made brave decisions that led the team to safety. Repeatedly requesting posting to the front in France,[109] he was by now drinking heavily. But what did Ernest Shackleton really do and what leadership insights can we learn from him? [114] From October 1918, he served with the North Russia Expeditionary Force in the Russian Civil War under the command of Major-General Edmund Ironside, with the role of advising on the equipment and training of British forces in arctic conditions. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was born to Anglo-Irish parents on February 15, 1874 in Co. Kildare, Ireland, with the family moving to Sydenham in London 10 years later. Later in the 20th century, Shackleton was "rediscovered". This allowed for Shackleton to remain in control of the morale of his crew members. Sir Ernest Shackleton : First let me say that if war is declared, any man who wishes to leave the expedition to serve his country is free to do so. [9] The aim was the conquest of both the geographical South Pole and the South Magnetic Pole. [59], On Shackleton's return home, public honours were quickly forthcoming. [127] Leonard Hussey, a veteran of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition, offered to accompany the body back to Britain; while he was in Montevideo en route to England, a message was received from Emily Shackleton asking that her husband be buried in South Georgia. During the Nimrod expedition of 1907–1909, he and three companions established a new record Farthest South latitude at 88°S, only 97 geographical miles (112 statute miles or 180 kilometres) from the South Pole, the largest advance to the pole in exploration history. [128] Within a year the first biography, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton, by Hugh Robert Mill, was published. There was a (male) cat named Mrs Chippy that belonged to the carpenter Harry McNish. [49] Nimrod arrived at McMurdo Sound on 29 January, but was stopped by ice 16 miles (26 km) north of Discovery's old base at Hut Point. She writes a monthly history of science column for The Irish Times. The crew of 28 had a meteorologist, a biologist, a carpenter, a physicist, a cook, a photographer, a couple of officers, seamen, firemen, and surgeons. [121] With funds supplied by former schoolfriend John Quiller Rowett, he acquired a 125-ton Norwegian sealer, named Foca I, which he renamed Quest. Partly this was in search of better professional prospects for the newly qualified doctor, but another factor may have been unease about their Anglo-Irish ancestry, following the assassination by Irish nationalists of Lord Frederick Cavendish, the British Secretary for Ireland, in 1882. In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton gave up his life as a landowner to study medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, moving his family into the city. [21] He also participated, with the scientists Edward Adrian Wilson and Hartley Ferrar, in the first sledging trip from the expedition's winter quarters in McMurdo Sound, a journey which established a safe route on to the Great Ice Barrier. 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